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AUSTRALIAN HORTICULTURAL INDUSTRIES
来源:博鳌亚洲论坛      发布时间:2013-11-27 13:32:10     浏览次数:190455次

AUSTRALIAN HORTICULTURAL INDUSTRIES

GRANT SHAW, INTERNATIONAL OPERATIONS MANAGER, AHI JENSEN

Thank you for the opportunity to speak at the BOAO International Conference on
Recycling Economy & Sustainable Development in Shenzhen.
 
Australian Horticultural Industries is presenting today, a paper which reflects the Horticultural industry developments, particularly in Queensland and the relevance and capability to deliver outcomes benefiting the China market.
 
Environmental consciousness and diminishing resources, particularly water and energy, have driven the implementation of micromanagement at all levels in Australia.  This has seen the recycling of household wastes become the norm for most homes.  The Industry in Queensland has been at the forefront in developing product solutions to deliver environmental accountability and compliance requirements in terms of carbon, saline, heavy metal credits and remediation systems.
 
Advanced technologies and recycling systems have enabled greening and utilization of degraded inland areas.  In Queensland environmental remediation and establishment of sustainable living environments, business and workers become attracted to areas which now offer significant lifestyle advantages.  The opportunity for taking advantage of the developments within this industry sector for China are in areas of reclaiming both arid zones and wetlands control to increase living space in a sustainable manner..
 
In Queensland, environmental efficiency benchmarks have created the need for high performance plants and input materials.  Plants have been developed with specialized traits for low water and chemical use, salinity tolerances, remediation properties, suitability for organic systems and to accommodate climate change.  Eco-friendly landscape design and technologies to reduce inputs and maintenance levels and utilize recycled wastes are fully integrated into the industry.  Chemical, water and fertilizer usage is minimized through genetic advances in plants and the incorporation of sustainable biodynamic systems to integrate a holistic approach to management of the landscape environment as a whole.
Overall the industry in Queensland is able to provide economic, social and environmental benefits in terms of contribution to the State economy through employment, improving the living environment and sustainability of the environment for the citizens through recycling practices and environmental remediation contributions.  The lifestyle horticulture industry has capitalised on its potential to alleviate social and environmental problems, delivering demonstrated outcomes in this arena.
 
There are many examples of the benefits to Recycling Economy and Sustainable Development that the Australian Horticultural Industries can deliver in the China market. 
 
1.    Wetland Landscape design, construction project management and consultation.
 
The importance of wetlands as a part of our water resources cannot be underestimated. They are important in improving the quality of water passing through them and providing habitats for flora and fauna. They also lessen the severity of run-off through storage and the natural absorption of water into the soil. However, the demands of population have put an increasing strain on wetland systems. The issues involved require implementations which focus on achieving an equitable balance of water use to meet the demands of increasing populations while maintaining environmental stability of wetlands and floodplain areas.
 
There is a growing concern for the water quality aspects of drainage design. Australian Horticultural Industries design wetland networks and drainage into existing Landscape developments so that a "natural" system is replicated. Biological systems such as wetlands are one method of providing a useful means of detecting and reducing the impacts of pollutants before they enter receiving waters. Wetlands are a key element of any urban management strategy for stainable development and constructed wetlands should be incorporated as key components into landscape projects.
 
Services offered to wetlands design and management from the Australian experience includes:
 
·   Assessment of wetlands Designs and how the fit into the ecosystems
·   Biological and Chemical monitoring 
·   Evaluation of both the quantity and quality of available water resources for the landscape
·   design of structures to reduce the quantity of litter, vegetative matter and sediment entering wetland areas 
·   Lake restoration and design of constructed wetlands 
·   Design of wetlands for both effluent and storm water 
·   development of Landscape strategies and plans for streams, rivers, lakes, wetlands and significant sites 
·   Assessment of environmental flows required to maintain flora and fauna of wetlands ecosystems.
·   Introduction of  specialized landscape wetland  plants to china from Australia
 
Urban storm water pollution has been recognized as a significant component of the pollution entering our waterways. Storm water runoff is typically high in phosphorous, nitrogen, litter, oil/grease and suspended solids. In recent years there has been a concerted effort to improve the quality of storm water discharging into our waterways. Constructed wetlands are universally recognized as an ecologically sustainable and cost effective storm water management tool given their ability to:
 
·   Significantly reduce storm water pollutants;
·   Provide a buffer to natural aquatic ecosystems;
·   Create habitat for flora and fauna;
·   Provide an attractive public amenity.
 
There are a number of different types of wetlands, examples of which are provided below. A storm water treatment wetland may include more than one of these components in its configuration.
 
Free Water Surface Wetlands
 
Free Water Surface (FWS) wetlands are characterized by an open water surface exposed to the atmosphere. FWS wetlands are typically composed of one or more shallow components or 'cells' ranging in depth from 5cm to more than 1m, fringed with emergent reeds and macrophytes.
Particularly in an urban setting, FWS wetlands are the most commonly utilized form of constructed wetland. They are appealing due to their ability to provide storm water treatment, create habitat and add an aesthetic element to public spaces.
 
Subsurface Gravel Bed Wetlands
 
Gravel based subsurface flow (SSF) wetlands consist of shallow basins or channels filled with a porous media such as gravel, into which vegetation is planted. The term subsurface is used to describe these systems because they are designed to have a water surface below the upper surface of the bed material. Features of a SSF wetland include:
 
·   A gravel bed depth of between 300mm and 600mm;
·   A media with very high surface area that maximizes contact with wastewater;
·   Very efficient removal of ammonia and pathogens;
·   An absence of pending water, removing the risk of mosquito outbreaks.
 
Sedimentation Basins
 
Sedimentation basins are structures that can be placed at the start of a storm water wetland system to capture coarse sediment from storm flows. Sedimentation basins differ from constructed wetlands in that they rely primarily on physical processes to treat the water, whereas a wetland relies primarily on biological processes. A sedimentation basin will temporarily detain storm water so that the velocity of storm flows is reduced and the sediment falls from the water column.
 
·                                 Typically, a large proportion of nutrients in storm water are bound to the suspended sediment particles. Therefore, since sedimentation basins are designed to facilitate the settling of sediment, they are also effective at removing a large proportion of particulate-based nutrients from the water column. The rate at which a sedimentation basin removes sediment from the water column is affected by the sediment particle size, the velocity of the water, and detention time (the length of time that the basin retains the storm water).
 
2.    Techno-organics – Sustainable Practice
 
Healthy plants have natural defense mechanisms that can overcome pests, disease, and “Techno-organic” describes a system of farming that reduces the need for the use of artificial inputs, which can lead to reduced incidence of pesticide residues in produce. It uses research and technology to create products customised to the needs of plants and to promote healthy soils. Farmers who use this system can eventually achieve production that requires no artificial chemical inputs, a true sustainable practice.
These products are based on the philosophy of feeding the soil organisms to promote healthy soil which will result in a healthy environment supporting the growth of healthy plants.  The benefits to be obtained using this approach include:
  • Minimizes the negative impacts of plant stress
  • Reduces plant sensitivity to ultraviolet light
  • Reduces soil moisture loss and plant water loss
  • Reduces transplant shock and aids recovery
  • Helps stabilize and improve soil structure
  • Encourages healthy growth to help resist adverse weather; transplant shock, disease and  pest attack    
  • Provides major nutrients, vitamins and trace elements
  • Maximises the plants genetic potential.
TECHNO-ORGANICS can be described as a manufacturing process and a positive scientific farming practice.  It is intended that “Techno-organic” branded products be identified as being of superior quality, having been produced using environmentally friendly inputs.
Manufacturing Process:
Techno-organics has developed unique process technologies over a number of years, which are applied to soil and crops to produce high quality nutrient rich yields. These products have significant benefits to all forms of plant life and soils, beneficial micro flora and fauna, when compared with current day conventional practices.
The scientifically formulated products have been specifically based on a philosophy that encompasses environmental concerns, healthier balanced soils and optimum nutrient input to maximise quality and productivity.
The Techno-organic products are mostly protein-based and fortified with a range of vitamins and with trace elements essential for the growth of soil microbes, earthworms and plants.
Farming Practice:
Techno-organics is the application of “customised holistic agronomics” to create healthy and abundant harvests.  It is the practice of applying common sense to the application of nutrient and plant protection inputs, capitalising on the input benefits from organic sources.   Customised holistic agronomics embodies the following principles:
  • Protection of  (positive contribution to) the environment
  • Balanced nutrient inputs for the soil, its beneficial organisms and plants
  • Strong and healthy plant growth, resulting in the ability to help resist disease and pests  
  • Increased yield and improved quality of crops
  • Safety in input application
The world market for organic products is increasing dramatically. Techno-Organic products assist farmers to progressively reduce their use of artificial inputs and replace those products with natural products. They facilitate an effective transition from conventional farming to organic farming.
Products give farmers real options for accessing high-value growth markets. However, there are farmers successfully using the products because of the quality of the produce, not necessarily because they wish to become organic farmers.
The products can be used in conjunction with conventional inputs and help improve gross margins. There are also markets for chemical reduced produce.
 
点击看大图
 
3.                   Natural Organic Fertiliser and Soil Conditioner
 
 The depth of leaf litter and humus covering the soil when regions are first farmed sustains high crop yields.  After several decades the organic carbon concentration declines and despite the use of inorganic fertilisers to replenish nutrients plants growth and crop yields no longer respond.  Lack of organic carbon in the soil profile has a direct relationship to lack of available water, subsoil constraints, increased pressure from root diseases due to poor “soil health”
 
Organic carbon has two key physical effects in improving soil health, it forms a physical barrier to protect from temperature extremes and protects from erosive impact due to rain droplets.  Not all forms of organic carbon improve the water holding capacity of soil and using the correct technology to create natural composts providing organic carbon and also resulting in desired water holding capability is critical.
 
Over time the microbial action in the soil breaks down the organic matter to produce inorganic nutrients that are then allow the plants to acquire the nutrients.  The breakdown of the organic matter is controlled by the environmental conditions and therefore results in the slow release of nutrients to match the growing conditions of the plants. 
 
 Australian Industries have developed techniques and processes to transform typical manure and green wastes into high value slow release fertilisers with high organic carbon contents resulting in significant benefits to soil health and environmental outcomes.
 
The benefits of utilizing natural organic carbon through application of manures and green waste which has been prepared correctly or utilizing internal waste products within the landscape itself represent significant opportunity for improving the soil profile and consuming products which would otherwise create a burden on waste removal infrastructure.  Production of these products is capable in China and examples of utilising the technology is within turf farm operations in Queensland. 
 
4.                   AHI Jensen - Recycled Water Utilisation & Operations in Chongqing
One Australian Horticultural company has begun operations in China, based in Chongqing and delivering capabilities already to the Kunming, Shenzhen, Chongqing and Chengdu markets.  In Australia the company has utilised available treated effluent water and applying many of the technologies outlined above, created a sustainable management system on premier golf course developments.  This greatly reduces the need for inorganic applications of fertilisers and utilises a key waste material in sewerage water and lastly eliminating the high energy and chemical requirements needed when fresh reticulated water is used for irrigation purposes.
 
Currently in Australia for every 1 liter of potable water produced, 700 milliliters is used for non-drinking consumption. The viable alternative to reduce the production of potable water is to recycle effluent water for use in horticultural irrigation. A double pronged innovative program to reduce the reliance on high end phosphate fertilizers, minimize the impact of nutrient discharge into the local rivers and dams and to use reclaimed water.
 
AHI Jensen has implemented a program to reduce greenhouse emissions and to manage our horticultural operations in an environmental sustainable method.  On its experimental Golf Course in Australia the Company has constructed a holding dam for reclaimed effluent water to be stored, treated and then used for irrigation.  Treating the effluent water with a microorganism cocktail, these microorganism break down the nutrient chains held in the effluent water, making them available for plant and lawns to absorb, it also increase the micro flora into the soil profile reducing nutrient leaching.  The constructed and natural wetland catchments areas around the golf course are also used to further reduce and trap the flow of unused nutrients before final discharged into the local creeks and river ways. This final step prevents the flow of nutrients into the local water ways, thus protecting the local water ecology and prevents the out break of toxic algae blooms. We estimate that some 300 million liters of portable water and 50 tones of high end fertilizers are saved annually saved by the use of recycled water.
In China the company is currently delivering sustainable and recycling technology to the Nanshan Arboretum project in Chongqing.  In Shenzhen the development of constructed wetlands is being presented to companies such as Beilin Landscape Company who have a high regard and proven history of environmental Landscape. And the ability and willingness to achieve environmentally sustainable results to the people of China
 
Thank you for the time and experience shared with you all today.